Agriculture - 85% of the population lived in the countryside but only 5% of the land was used for farming. Old fashioned farming methods resulted in inefficiency and starvation
Industry - Russia was rich in oil and minerals but had only begun to industrialize in the late 19th century, it was dependent on foreign investment and was still behind the western powers (Britain, France, Germany and USA).
The People - total population of 125 million made up of more than 20 different nationalities. For 60 % of the population Russian was a foreign language. The empire remained divided.
Religion - The main religion was Russian Orthodox - 70% population. However a large minority belonged to other religions.
Communication - long distances and poor roads meant that communication was slow. In the Arctic circle frozen seas and rivers prevented use of ship for much of year.